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How Climate Change Affect Your Health (from @Greenpeace)

29 Aug

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Ecological Footprint

17 Jul

It is still difficult to understand what the meaning of ecological footprint is. I also have to browse several site to understand it more:
http://www.footprintnetwork.org/en/index.php/GFN/page/footprint_basics_overview/
https://nnnnhayati.wordpress.com/2013/09/10/cara-menghitung-tapak-ekologi-tapak-ekologi-indonesia/ (Indonesian version)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_ecological_footprint

Here is what I understand:

Human needs resources to live. But by living also, human produce waste. The amount natural resources needed by human to live and to recycle their waste is what ecological footprint means (as far as I understood).

I was only thinking about one person. But in a world level, it’s talking about all people in the world, and their need, and their waste.

This is big.

Okay, now I’ll reduce it into one country, Indonesia, where I live.

Cited from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_ecological_footprint Indonesia’s population is 224.67 million. Indonesian need of resource to live and recycle their waste (ecological footprint) is 1.21 gha/pers, while Indonesia’s natural resource capacity to support it’s people live (biocapacity) is 1.35 ghs/pers. So, there are still 0.14 gha/pers remain. That means Indonesia still have surplus of resources to support the people.

But, it’s only a small number of surplus. We don’t know what will happen in the next ten or twenty years. And we human lives in one world. There are countries that already have deficit resources, according to the list. Moreover, human needs are constantly increased by a lot of changing like globalization. Is our one earth enough to support us?

This is one serious problem to think.

Green Africa Youth Organization

Have you heard the word before, “Ecological Footprint”? Do you understand it? Do you know your footprint or that of your country or continent?

I will like to introduce you to Ecological Footprint:
Conceived in 1990 by Mathis Wackernagel and William Rees at the University of British Columbia, the Ecological Footprint launched the broader Footprint movement, including the carbon Footprint, and is now widely used by scientists, businesses, governments, individuals and institutions working to monitor ecological resource use and advance sustainable development.

Ecological footprint is the amount of biologically productive land (land that is sufficiently fertile to accommodate forests or agriculture or fishing grounds– they do not include deserts, glaciers and open oceans) and water needed to supply the people in a particular country or area with renewable resources and to absorb and recycle the wastes and pollution produced by resource use. It is measured in million/global hectares.

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Ocean Acidification? Never heard of it before.

16 Jul

Ocean acidification is also a new thing for me. It’s the first time I’ve heard of it. I think it is a serious problem, considering that I live in Indonesia, where has the longest coastline in the world. We also live from oceans, foods, especially, some come from ocean. There also beach tourism and underwater sights tourism which become one of Indonesia economic commodities. What will happen if the ocean is contaminated or becoming acid? Many ocean living creatures would die. Economic is threatened, and the most dangerous level is, we’ll die. Water conservation become the biggest concern. We not only have to save clean water. We also have to be wise in using washing detergent in everyday life because all water comes to the ocean. That’s the simplest thing we can contribute in water conservation.

wethehumans

Oceans are turning acidic as a result of increased Carbon dioxide emission. As they act as sponge for these emissions so the level of carbon dioxide is found to be increasing in them. What actually happens? Due to absorption of carbon dioxide pH is lowered, hence acidic, and you know what is the major issue? The pH scale is logarithmic, this means that impact of minor drop in pH can have profound impacts.

Thus oceanic ecosystem as a whole is being disturbed as a result of ocean acidification. Calcifers (oysters, shell-fish etc) suffer most, because carbonate and acidity are inversely related, and these animals require carbonate for building and strengthening their shells. cartoon-coralsCorals have been reported to show decline in growth in presence of acidic media.

Similarly lowering of pH effects health of several fishes, as they are incapable of breathing. However, some plants and predators are positively effected. Loss of habitat…

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Belated New Year’s Resolutions.

28 Jan

Source: Belated New Year’s Resolutions.

Isolasi Senyawa Fenolik

18 Mar

Senyawa fenolik termasuk senyawa metabolit sekunder. Senyawa metabolit sekunder dalam tumbuhan terdistribusi pada berbagai bagian tumbuhan, dan dari masing-masing bagian tersebut memiliki jenis dan kuantitas senyawa yang berbeda.


Metode isolasi senyawa fenolik dilakukan dengan cara maserasi menggunakan metanol. Metode maserasi dipilih agar senyawa yang akan diisolasi tidak rusak, karena pada metode ini tidak ada perlakuan khusus seperti pemanasan
Metanol dipilih sebagai pelarut karena metanol bersifat polar, sehingga cocok sebagai pelarut senyawa fenolik yang juga bersifat polar. Pemisahandilakukan dengan cara kromatografi cair vakum (KCV), kromatografi flash, dan kromatografi kolom gravitasi (KKG). Identifikasi kemurnian dilakukan menggunakan kromatografi lapis tipis (KLT) dan uji titik leleh.


Identifikasi struktur molekul dilakukan dengan menggunakan spektroskopi ultraungu-tampak (UV-VIS) untuk melihat ada tidaknya ikatan rangkap terkonjugasi, spektroskopi inframerah (IR) untuk melihat keberadaan gugus fungsinya, dan spektroskopi resonansi magnetik inti (1H-RMI) untuk melihat posisi atau jumlah proton (atomH).


Istilah senyawa fenolik meliputi aneka ragam senyawa yang berasal dari tumbuhan, yang mempunyai ciri sama yaitu cincin aromatik yang mengandung satu atau dua gugus hidroksil. Senyawa fenolik cenderung mudah larut dalam air karena umumnya mereka sering kali berikatan dengan gula sebagai glikosida. Semua senyawa fenolik berupa senyawa aromatik, sehingga semua menunjukkan serapan kuat di daerah spektrum UV. Karena itu, cara spektrometri penting, terutama untuk identifikasi senyawa fenolik.


Flavonoid merupakan kelompok senyawa fenolik terbesar yang terdapat pada tanaman. Flavonoid merupakan salah satu produk metabolisme sekunder yang penyebarannya terbatas, yaitu pada tumbuhan dan mikroorganisme.


Stilbenoid merupakan kelompok senyawa fenolik yang jumlahnya terbatas pada tumbuhan tetapi terdapat pada seluruh bagian tumbuhan, walaupun dengan jumlah yang sangat sedikit. Kebanyakan senyawa stilbenoid diisolasi dalam bentuk isomer trans.


Maserasi merupakan salahsatu teknik ekstraksi atau pemisahan senyawa yang dilakukan dengan cara merendam sampel menggunakan suatu pelarut tertentu yang sesuai. Pada penelitian ini membagi 2400 gram sampel ke dalam 200 gram untuk satu tahap maserasi, sehingga ada 12 tahap maserasi. Satu tahap maserasi perlakukannya selama 24 jam dengan tiga kali pengulangan. Maserasi menggunakan pelarut metanol, pemilihan pelarut ini dikarenakan senyawa fenolik merupakan senyawa polar, sehingga untuk mengekstrak senyawa polar diperlukan pelarut yang juga polar. Kemudian menyaring dan menguapkan hasil ekstraksi menggunakan penguap putar vakum pada suhu 45-50˚C dengan laju putaran 120-150 rpm.